Programme director. House Chairperson Hon Didiza
President Thabo Mbeki
Former President of Mauritius Prof Ameenah Gurib-Fakim
Dean of Ambassadors, Ambassador Mpoko
Chairperson of the foundation Dr Brigalia Bam
Ladies and gentlemen
I would like to thank the Thabo Mbeki Foundation for inviting me to participate at this important dialogue about the important role of women in advancing Africa’s development.
To drive development in the modern world science, technology & Innovation have to be placed at the centre of the developmental agenda. Without sufficient participation of women in Science and Technology, Africa will remain saddled with many developmental challenges.
Recent reviews of the South African system of innovation revealed that the participation of women in the research system has grown substantially. In 2013/14, including doctoral and post-doctoral students, women comprised 44 percent of R&D personnel. However, significant inequality persists, especially at the higher levels. Black women less than 5 percent of the full professoriate. This represents significant challenge for making the research system more inclusive, diverse and resilient.
A world that is deprived of women participation in science, technology and Innovation, is a world that is poorer in terms of perspectives essential to addressing gender dimensions and the burden of infectious diseases, which often disproportionately affect women. Part of our responsibility as the DST is to fund researchers and we have realised that along the researchers pipeline women mysteriously disappear. We realised that this is because our funding model is not adequate.
We recently initiated a process of restructuring our research funding model especially when with regards to the funding model for women researchers. Part its limitation is that the current funding model does not cater for women who want to start families. For this reason, a woman has to choose between continuing to conduct research and starting a family and if they do decide to start a family, to keep up with research means cutting short the time for breastfeeding. Admittedly, the situation I am describing goes beyond funding it also speaks to the capacitation of the work environment with facilities for mothers and their young.
With the current funding model, mothers who are researchers are not able to travel with their children. In addition, most of the scientific conference are conceptualised around male preferences in that the facilities for mothers that I have referred above are seldom made available. Once again women are presented with obstacles that make it very difficult to stay in the field. In part this explains the appalling number of female professors.
According to the 2018 World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap report “the largest gender disparity is on Political Empowerment, which today maintains a gap of 77.1%. The Economic Participation and Opportunity gap is the second-largest at 41.9%, while the Educational Attainment and Health and Survival gaps are significantly lower at 4.4% and 4.6%, respectively. This means that we have more women and girls entering the education system but they fail to find opportunities and consequently their economic participation remains low.”
The report further says that “All eight geographical regions assessed in the report have achieved at least 60% gender parity, and two have progressed above 70%.
And it goes on to say that “if current rates were to be maintained in the future, the overall global gender gap will close in 61 years in Western Europe, 70 years in South Asia, 74 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, 135 years in Sub-Saharan Africa, 124 years in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 153 years in the Middle East and North Africa, 171 years in East Asia and the Pacific, and 165 years in North America.”
Evidently, to attain gender parity in the area of Science and Technology will take even longer. This means that we need to radically change the pace in which we are transforming the system of science and innovation in favour of women.
In this regard, the DST has initiated a number of programmes to intervene positively and ensure that we bring more women into the system of science and innovation.
Last year we established ten (10) OR Tambo Africa Research Chairs which will be located in various institutions across the African continent. These chairs will focus on research priorities identified by each host institution in conjunction with the Science Granting Councils (SGC) and the African Research Universities Alliance (ARUA) countries, and in alignment with AU Agenda 2063 and STISA 2024. Gender, disciplinary and geographical spread will be underlying considerations in the awarding of a chair. At least 60% of the chairs shall be female holders, and up to 40% in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Each Chair will be applicable for one 5-year term in the first instance, with a possibility of renewal for up to two additional terms of five years each, subject to excellent performance and availability of funds.
Locally, we introduced the South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARCHI) and more recently managed to increase the number of women appointments in these positions to 40% of the 201 Research Chairs.
Furthermore, for the past 14 years ago, the DST we have been running the South African Women in Science Awards (SaWiSA) to encourage women who are already working in STEM fields. Among other things, SAWiSA also demonstrates that women and girls can succeed and excel in the areas of science and research that have always been regarded as the sole preserve of men.
SAWiSA finalists work in fields as diverse as conservation biology, biotechnology, commerce and administration, early childhood development, nanotechnology and indigenous knowledge systems. To celebrate the launch 64-antenna MeerKAT radio telescope, last year’s edition of SAWiSA introduced an award for outstanding women researchers in astronomy. We also decided to rename the “DST Fellowship Awards”, to “DST-Albertina Sisulu Awards” in honour of the 100 Years of Albertina Sisulu, which we celebrated Last year.
We have also started the process of establishing an Albertina Sisulu SARChI Chair in Nursing Care which will be awarded to a woman researcher to work in this important area.
At a continent-wide level, the African Union Kwame Nkrumah Award for Scientific Excellence, stands out for its Regional Awards which specifically recognise women who are front-runners in their STEM careers and their utilisation of STEM in solving national challenges that also have a transnational face. The Next Einstein Forum is also gaining traction in igniting cross-sectoral dialogue on bridging the gap for women in STEM. With a keen focus on raising up and releasing the next generation of African scientists the Next Einstein Fellows’ Programme is a select initiative which recognises Africa’s best young scientists and technologists. At least 40% of these innovators and emerging leaders are women.
We are also cognisant of the fact that we are implementing initiatives for gender transformation in a system that is also undergoing transformation. I am referring to the technological transformation commonly known as the fourth industrial revolution. In the same way that the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution have the potential to leapfrog countries that are technologically behind to be technological edge, I think that these technologies can also help us to fast track gender transformation. For example, technologies such as virtual reality and internet of things can help us overcome the problem of researchers who are mothers by creating virtual workstations.
However, the Global Gender Gap Report to which I referred has also found that “only 22% of AI professionals globally are female, compared to 78% who are male”. This is not encouraging as it is a mirror image of the gender inequalities that we witnessed in the usage of ICT. If we do not do something about it, women will become the objects of the fourth industrial revolution.
There is a lot that still needs to be done and there is a lot that we can do to advance and enhance the role of women in science and innovation. Increasing women participation will in turn lead to women’s greater participation in Africa’s development.
I thank you